COBENEFITS Studies in Vietnam

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Status quo energy policy

In Vietnam, rapid industrialisation in the wake of the economic reforms of 1986 led to sharp increases in energy demand. As a result, energy production quintupled and primary energy use quadrupled between 1986 and 2015. This was accompanied by an increase in energy diversification. In 2015, coal and oil accounted for the largest shares in Vietnam’s energy supply (33.9% coal and 25.5% oil). Energy from biofuels and biomass made up 21.1% of the energy supply, while natural gas and hydropower accounted for 13% and 6.6% respectively. Installed renewable energy capacities remain negligible, but observers anticipate dynamic growth in the years ahead. Vietnam’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) include an 8% reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to its business-as-usual scenario (BAU).

Energy-related Challenges and Opportunities

Likely climate change impacts include significant sea level rise, which will affect the Mekong Delta, the Red River Delta and Ho Chi Minh City, impacting on Vietnam’s major economic and population centres. Progress towards the broad adoption of cleaner technologies, which would reduce overall air pollution and particulate emissions from coal-fired power plants in particular, has been hampered by an uncertain investment environment. Given Vietnam’s dependence on energy imports, the government views renewable energy generation as a pathway to greater energy independence. However, it will be some time before installed renewable energy capacity reaches significant levels, and plans to install 77 new coal-fired power plants by 2030 are likely to determine the trajectory of Vietnam’s GHG emissions for decades to come. But, while Vietnam faces some significant challenges, there are abundant opportunities to link energy security and economic growth.

COBENEFITS Council Members in Vietnam

  • Ministry for Planning and Investment (MPI)

  • Ministry of Industry and Trade (MOIT)

  • Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE)

  • Central Propaganda Department of the Communist Party of Vietnam

  • Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA)

  • Ministry of Health (MOH)

COBENEFITS Focal Points in Vietnam

GreenID is a Hanoi-based non-profit organisation established under the Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Associations (VUSTA). GreenID works to promote sustainable development in Vietnam and the larger Mekong region and has become a leading civil society actor in the promotion of sustainable energy sector development. GreenID has project-specific experience coupled with cutting-edge global knowledge and expertise in the integration of sustainable solutions into policy and local communities.